What Are The Causes Of Borderline Personality Disorder
The exact causes of borderline personality disorder are yet to be discovered. There are some potential factors that may play a role in the development of this disorder:
- Genetic predisposition
- Structural and functional changes in the brain and neuroregulatory systems
However, not everyone who had these experiences will have BPD. And its more likely that a combination of factors is responsible for the development of this disorder rather than a single reason.
How Socal Empowered Can Help
As weve discussed more than once, borderline personality disorder is a complicated matter to handle, even for mental health professionals, as it appears in several specific forms. Our Orange County mental health professionals at SoCal Empowered understand the ins and outs of this difficult condition, and were here to help.
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Myth: It Affects Only Women
Its estimated that over 14 million Americans have BPD. Once more commonly diagnosed in women, the largest study done on psychiatric disorders shows that it occurs equally often in women and men.
One explanation behind it appearing to affect more women is that women are more likely to seek mental health care than men. Since research on BPD is often conducted in a psychiatric setting, it was previously less likely for men with borderline personality disorder to be included in these research efforts.
Another explanation is that BPD is often misdiagnosed in men. Many men with the condition are often diagnosed with depression or PTSD.
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How Is Bpd Different From Bipolar Disorder
- Borderline personality disorder is a personality disorder, while bipolar disorder is a mood disorder.
- Mood swings in BPD and bipolar disorder have different durations. For example, in people with bipolar disorder, depressive episodes may be much longer than in people with BPD.
- A bipolar person between episodes of mania or depression can demonstrate stability in daily functioning and relationships, which is not typical for BPD.
- BPD has psychological aspects, while bipolar disorder is more rooted in biological ones.
- In bipolar disorder, environmental changes have no impact on moods e.g., a positive event cant lift a depressed mood, while in borderline personality disorder, it can significantly impact the mood.
Therapy For Caregivers And Family Members
Having a relative or loved one with the disorder can be stressful, and family members or caregivers may unintentionally act in ways that can worsen their loved ones symptoms.
Although more research is needed to determine how well family therapy helps with borderline personality disorder, studies on other mental disorders show that including family members can help support a persons treatment. Families and caregivers also can benefit from therapy.
Family therapy helps by:
- Allowing the relative or loved one to develop skills to understand and support a person with borderline personality disorder.
- Focusing on the needs of family members to help them understand the obstacles and strategies for caring for someone with the disorder.
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Borderline Personality Disorder Dsm
Reviewed by Whitney White, MS CMHC, NCC., LPC
Borderline personality disorder is a severe mental health issue that involves difficulties regulating mood and emotions. BPD’s signs and symptoms can be difficult to manage but it is possible, and effective treatments are available. This article will explain what borderline personality disorder is, how its described in the DSM-5, and what treatments may be helpful to those with the disorder.
Myth: Its Not Treatable
Borderline personality disorder is very treatable. In the past, since BPD affects someones personality, many were quick to conclude that it was untreatable because someones personality cannot be changed.
More recently, many therapies have been proven effective as treatments, including dialectical behavior therapy , mentalization-based treatment , and transference-focused psychotherapy . Now, a growing number of less intensive, generalist approaches, like general psychiatric management , are also being practiced around the world.
A BPD diagnosis doesnt mean that someone will live with symptoms forever. With treatment, the symptoms ebb and flow. Many people with the condition can have high-functioning lives.
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How Long Does A Bpd Diagnosis Take
A BPD diagnosis may be given after one session or several sessions with a mental health provider, depending on how long it takes for your clinician to conduct a thorough assessment. If your symptoms indicate other conditions, or you have underlying medical concerns such as a previous head injury or concussion, your mental health provider may refer you to a specialist or another medical professional for additional information.
Borderline Personality Disorder: Meaning And Symptoms
Borderline personality disorder refers to maladaptive problems in the personality related to interpersonal relationships, impulsive behavior and abnormal emotional responses.
In the ICD 10, Borderline personality disorder is a part of the Emotionally Unstable personality disorder, whereas in the DSM 5 it is included as it is.
The DSM 5 criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder is given as follows:
The DSM 5 criteria of the disorder are given as the following:
BPD is a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion, as well as marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five of the following:
- Chronic feelings of emptiness
- Emotional instability in reaction to day-to-day events
- Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
- Identity disturbance with markedly or persistently unstable self-image or sense of self
- Impulsive behavior in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging
- Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger
- Pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by extremes between idealization and devaluation Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-harming behavior Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms.
On the other hand, the ICD 10 criteria for Borderline personality disorder is fairly short, and it is as given below:
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Unstable Interpersonal Relationships And Seeing The World In Extremes
Due to frequent mood swings and unexpected changes in attitudes either to oneself or to a partner, a relationship with the BPD person turns into a rollercoaster. They may idealize their partner and then devalue them they now can be the best, but if a partner says something wrong, they hate them. Sometimes, this happens almost simultaneously.
The perception of the world only in black and white, when there are two extremes, two sides all good or all bad creates more challenges in life.
Causes Of Borderline Personality Disorder
Like most psychological disorders, the exact cause of BPD is not known. However, there is research to suggest that some combination of nature and nurture is at play.
A few of the proposed causes of borderline personality disorder include:
- Brain structure: There is evidence of differences in brain structure and function in individuals with BPD, especially in the parts of the brain that affect impulse control and emotional regulation. However, it’s unclear if these differences are a result of having BPD or if they are part of the cause.
- Genetics: There appears to be a genetic component to borderline personality disorder as it’s not uncommon for close family members to have this condition.
- Negative experiences: Many people diagnosed with BPD have experienced childhood abuse, trauma, neglect, or were separated from their caregivers at an early age. At the same time, not all people with BPD had one of these childhood experiences, and, conversely, many people who have had them do not develop BPD.
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Latest Mental Health News
As per the DSM definition, in order to qualify for the diagnosis of BPD, an individual must have at least five of the following symptoms:
- Distorted, unstable self-image, in that they may drastically and rapidly change in the way they understand their own likes, dislikes, strengths, challenges, goals, and even their basic value as a person, even to the point of having feelings of worthlessness
- Repeatedly unstable relationships, in that individuals with this disorder repeatedly, rapidly, and drastically change from seeing another person as nearly perfect to seeing the same person as being bad or nearly worthless
- Unstable emotions , in that the sufferer experiences marked, rapid mood swings that are stress related, even if the stresses may be seen as minor or negligible to others
- Frantic efforts to avoid loneliness or being abandoned, whether the abandonment is real or imagined
- Significant impulsivity , in at least two aspects that can be self-damaging
- Repeated self-mutilating behaviors, thoughts of suicide, suicidal behaviors, threats, or attempts
- Chronic, persistent feelings of emptiness
- Inappropriate, intense hostility or anger, a lack of restraint or other difficulty managing those or other potentially negative emotions when they occur
- Transient, stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociation
Panic attacks are repeated attacks of fear that can last for several minutes.See Answer
Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms And Behaviors
Those who have borderline personality disorder experience frequent emotional and relational instability. Their interests and values can change quickly and extreme shifts in feelings can lead to intense and rocky relationships. It is common to see problems with romantic relationships, friendships, and issues within the workplace. The most common behaviors and symptoms of borderline personality disorder include:
These symptoms can be triggered by seemingly ordinary events, such as becoming distressed while traveling to work or when being separated from someone else for a short period of time. It is important to note that not everyone with borderline personality disorder will experience every symptom. In order to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, a person must show at least five of the above symptoms, but some individuals will experience less than others. Someone who is consistently experiencing one or more of these borderline personality disorder symptoms should talk to their doctor or mental health care provider.
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What Are The Nine Criteria Of Bpd
There are nine criteria symptoms of BPD. To be diagnosed with BPD, you must display at least five of the following symptoms:
- viewing relationships in extremes
- challenges controlling anger
- acting impulsively in at least two ways that could be potentially harmful
- paranoia or dissociation, which is often brief and related to times of extreme stress
- a lack of sense of self
- fear of abandonment
What Is The Prognosis Of People With Borderline Personality Disorder
Improvement in any personality disorder is not the same as being cured, in that while the symptoms of BPD do tend to diminish with time, some often remain. Therefore, full recovery can be difficult to achieve. But how well or poorly people with BPD progress over time seems to be influenced by how severe the disorder is at the time that treatment starts, the state of the individual’s current personal relationships, whether or not the sufferer has a history of being abused as a child, as well as whether or not the person receives appropriate treatment and how long it takes for that to occur. Simultaneously suffering from depression, other emotional problems, or a low level of conscientiousness have been found to be associated with a greater likelihood of the symptoms of BPD returning . Conversely, having steady employment or school status once symptoms of BPD subside tends to protect BPD sufferers from experiencing a future relapse.
People with BPD are at higher risk for having long-term substance abuse. Other complications that are associated with this personality disorder include unemployment, social isolation, reckless driving, legal problems, as well as suicide attempts and completion.
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What Is A Mood Disorder
A mood disorder is a mental health condition that primarily affects your emotional state. Its a disorder in which you experience long periods of extreme happiness, extreme sadness or both. Certain mood disorders involve other persistent emotions, such as anger and irritability.
Its normal for your mood to change, depending on the situation. However, for a mood disorder diagnosis, symptoms must be present for several weeks or longer. Mood disorders can cause changes in your behavior and can affect your ability to perform routine activities, such as work or school.
Two of the most common mood disorders are depression and bipolar disorder.
How Common Are Mood Disorders
Mood disorders are relatively common in adults, with depression and bipolar disorder being the most common. Approximately 7% of adults in the United States have depression, while about 2.8% have bipolar disorder.
Mood disorders are commonly seen in children and adolescents approximately 15% have any mood disorder.
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Environmental Causes Of Bpd
Adverse life experiences such as child abuse, neglect, or anything that causes long-term fear and distress seem to play a key role in causing BPD.
In fact, some experts propose that BPD is a neurodevelopmental condition that stems from maladaptive responses to trauma and stress.
According to an analysis of literature, people with BPD are 13 times more likely to report childhood trauma than those without BPD. Childhood trauma is also more likely to be linked to BPD than to other personality disorders, mood disorders, or psychosis.
Out of more than 5,000 people, 71.1% of people with BPD had at least one traumatic childhood experience.
People with BPD also reported similar childhood events and experiences, including:
- physical neglect
- impulse control
- interpersonal skills
Even if you didnt experience childhood abuse, some parenting styles especially harsh or invalidating ones might also increase your chances of developing BPD.
When these parenting styles mix with genetic factors like temperament, it could mean an even higher likelihood a person may develop BPD.
BPD seems to have a strong genetic component and tends to run in families. This means people with BPD may be more likely to have certain temperamental traits.
Some traits that have been linked to BPD include:
- a tendency to seek out new experiences
- less self-direction
- higher likeliness to want to avoid harm
- lower cooperation
- medial temporal lobes
To make sure you get the right diagnosis, the clinician might:
Environment Influences And Borderline Personality Disorder
Environmental factors, which in this case means exposure to childhood trauma, loss, and neglect, also plays a role in the onset of borderline personality disorder. While genetic influences may be somewhat more important, only a small percentage of BPD sufferers will develop the disorder despite having no past history of abuse and neglect.
Because children are still in a stage of transition, mentally and physically, negative experiences can have a devastating impact on their course of development. They may be diagnosed with numerous mental health problems in later life, including borderline personality disorder.
The list of childhood experiences that make a person vulnerable to BPD in adulthood includes:
- Emotional abuse
- Witnessing of abuse within the family
Multiple studies have been carried out investigating the prevalence of childhood abuse and neglect among adult borderline personality disorder sufferers, and the results are striking: between 40 and 86 percent of BPD sufferers report sexual abuse, up to 75 percent say they were emotionally abused, up to 73 percent report physical abuse, and between 17 and 25 percent experienced severe emotional neglect.
Children depend on parents and other trusted caretakers to provide a safe, loving, and supportive environment, and when that does not happen the long-term consequences can be devastating.
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What Are The Consequences Of Borderline Personality Disorder
Like all the other personality disorders, BPD can cause significant challenges in virtually every aspect of life.
Forming and maintaining social relationships due to emotional instability can be one of the biggest problems for many individuals and this can lead to additional issues such as low self-esteem, an extreme fear of being abandoned, or even suicidal ideation.
If you or someone you know is experiencing suicidal thoughts, help is available. The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline can be reached at 1-800-273-8255 and is available 24/7, or you can text the word HOME to 741741 to reach the Crisis Text Line.
People with a borderline personality disorder may also become very impulsive. Many of these behaviors, such as gambling, unsafe sex, and binge eating, can have a profoundly negative effect on their financial well-being and overall health.
People with BPD may resort to substance abuse and self-harm to cope with the extreme ups and downs that come with the condition.
Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms & Signs
Symptoms and signs reflect the disordered thinking and self-image and can include intense and inappropriate anger, anxiety, depression, guilt, loneliness, mood swings, paranoia, sadness, or suicidal thoughts or other thoughts of self-harm. Other associated symptoms can include grandiosity, narcissism, antisocial behavior, compulsive behavior, impulsivity, irritability, risk-taking behavior, self-harm, social isolation, unstable relationships, and insecurity.
Borderline personality disorder is a mental illness that is part of the group of mental illnesses called personality disorders. Like other personality disorders, it is characterized by a consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and interacting with others and with the world that tends to result in significant problems for the sufferer. Specifically, BPD is associated with a pattern of unstable ways of seeing oneself, feeling, behaving, and relating to other people that markedly interferes with the individual’s ability to function. Also, as with other personality disorders, the person is usually an adolescent or adult before they can be assessed as meeting full symptom criteria for BPD.
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