What Are The Symptoms Of Attention
The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:
Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities
Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often
Inability to stay on task shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion
The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child’s doctor for a diagnosis.
Recreational Use And Issues Of Abuse
Stimulants enhance the activity of the and . Common effects may include increased , , , , , and , , , , and , and a diminished desire for and . Use of stimulants may cause the body to reduce significantly its production of natural body chemicals that fulfill similar functions. Until the body reestablishes its normal state, once the effect of the ingested stimulant has worn off the user may feel depressed, lethargic, confused, and miserable. This is referred to as a “”, and may provoke reuse of the stimulant.
of stimulants is common. to some CNS stimulants can quickly lead to , , and deterioration. , , and as well as a syndrome can occur. Stimulants may be screened for in animal discrimination and self-administration models which have high sensitivity albeit low specificity. Research on a progressive ratio protocol has found amphetamine, methylphenidate, modafinil, cocaine, and nicotine to all have a higher break point than placebo that scales with dose indicating reinforcing effects.
|Dependence potentials of common stimulants|
Contemporary Definition And Research
Prior to the founding of as a scientific discipline, attention was studied in the field of . Thus, many of the discoveries in the field of attention were made by philosophers. Psychologist calls the father of modern psychology because, in his book De Anima et Vita , he was the first to recognize the importance of empirical investigation. In his work on memory, Vives found that the more closely one attends to stimuli, the better they will be retained.
By the 1990s, psychologists began using and later to image the brain while monitoring tasks involving attention. Considering this expensive equipment was generally only available in hospitals, psychologists sought cooperation with neurologists. Psychologist and neurologist pioneered brain imaging studies of selective attention. Their results soon sparked interest from the neuroscience community, which until then had simply been focused on monkey brains. With the development of these technological innovations, became interested in this type of research that combines sophisticated experimental paradigms from with these new brain imaging techniques. Although the older technique of had long been used to study the brain activity underlying selective attention by , the ability of the newer techniques to actually measure precisely localized activity inside the brain generated renewed interest by a wider community of researchers. A growing body of such research has identified a which appears to be responsible for control of attention.
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Detection In Biological Fluids
The concentration of methylphenidate or , its major , may be quantified in plasma, serum or whole blood in order to monitor compliance in those receiving the drug therapeutically, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdosage.
Research And Data Collection
is information or evidence that is gathered from an environment or sample to be processed and interpreted to find and provide results for a particular study. data has an important role in the field of psychology, providing insight to be analyzed, shared, and stored for future reference.
Particularly, refers to the gathering of information from subjects in a sample by methods in order to attain a comprehensive examination of a situation or specific study from the individuals. The validity of the a responses of the subjects in the sample is important, as they provide the basis for which a conclusion can be drawn in that study.
In , careless responses are those that are defined to have not been entirely authentic or to be lacking in relevance to the topic being examined in the study. Also referred to as random response, this is an area of concern in research studies and data collection due to the possible impacts that error data could have on the significance conclusion to be drawn later. Attention and interest are both factors that have a possible influence on the validity of an individual’s responses. Careless data can lead to lower which will ultimately decrease the intensity of correlation, if one exists. A method known as data screening is recommended as a means of discerning between response data that is valid and that which is careless.
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What Can I Do About It
ADHD is usually treated with a combination of medication, counselling and self-care.
- MedicationAdults are often treated with the same kind of stimulant and non-stimulant ADHD medication as children. There is a non-stimulant ADHD medication option, which is a type of antidepressant. Other types of antidepressants may also be particularly helpful for adults who have depression or an anxiety disorder in addition to ADHD.
- Its important to remember that different medications may not be a good option for all people. Its important to tell your doctor about your health conditions and health conditions in your family. For example, stimulant medications may not be a good option for people with heart, mood, sleep, anxiety or substance use problems.
The Contribution Of Rare Genetic Variants: Chromosomal Anomalies Genetic Syndromes And Copy Number Variants
A number of different chromosomal anomalies including abnormalities in the number of chromosomes and chromosomal structure as well as some single gene disorders have been found to be associated with higher rates of ADHD. Fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis and several microdeletion syndromes including Smith Magenis and Velocardiofacial syndromes are associated with ADHD . They are also associated with other neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders . However routine screening in those without ID does not appear to be indicated.3435
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The Link Between Ahdh And Risky Behavior
Because people with ADHD have lower levels of dopamine, the chemical that gives you a sense of excitement and arousal, they may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors like drugs, alcohol, having sex at an earlier age, or even adrenaline-seeking activities like bungee jumping or car racing. This is because the thrill of the behavior increases dopamine in the brain. Its especially difficult for those with ADHD to do mundane, boring tasks because of their need for stimulating activities. Rossillo says.
But this doesnt mean that all people with ADHD should become stuntmen to be fulfilled a 9-to-5 desk job just might not be their thing. Many individuals with ADHD may ultimately look for jobs that include constant movement, high intensity, or a fast-paced environment, Rossillo says. Emergency room doctor, anyone?
Why Is Adhd In Adults Hard To Diagnose
ADHD can be harder to diagnose in adults for some of these reasons:
- Other mental illnesses can cause problems with attention or behaviour. For example, some mood disorders can cause problems with concentration, some anxiety disorders can cause problems with restlessness and some personality disorders can cause problems with impulsivity
- Clinicians may have less training to recognize ADHD in adults, although this is getting better
- Adults can develop coping strategies that hide symptoms. For example, an adult who feels very restless can choose a busy, fast-paced job or change jobs often.
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Psychotherapy And Psychosocial Interventions
Several specific psychosocial interventions have been shown to help individuals with ADHD and their families manage symptoms and improve everyday functioning.
For school-age children, frustration, blame, and anger may have built up within a family before a child is diagnosed. Parents and children may need specialized help to overcome negative feelings. Mental health professionals can educate parents about ADHD and how it affects a family. They also will help the child and his or her parents develop new skills, attitudes, and ways of relating to each other.
All types of therapy for children and teens with ADHD require parents to play an active role. Psychotherapy that includes only individual treatment sessions with the child is not effective for managing ADHD symptoms and behavior. This type of treatment is more likely to be effective for treating symptoms of anxiety or depression that may occur along with ADHD.
Behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help a person change their behavior. It might involve practical assistance, such as help organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events. Behavioral therapy also teaches a person how to:
- monitor their own behavior
- give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way, such as controlling anger or thinking before acting
How Is Adhd Diagnosed In Adults
ADHD is a disorder that begins in childhood and continues into adulthood. Adults who are diagnosed with ADHD experienced several symptoms of ADHD before the age of 12. As adults, they currently experience at least five persistent symptoms of inattention and/or five persistent symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity. These symptoms must be present in two or more settings and interfere with, or reduce the quality of, social, school, or work functioning.
Adults who think they may have ADHD should talk to their health care provider. Primary care providers routinely diagnose and treat ADHD and may refer individuals to mental health professionals. If you need help starting the conversation, check out NIMHs Tips for Talking With Your Health Care Provider fact sheet.
Stress, other mental health conditions, and physical conditions or illnesses can cause similar symptoms to those of ADHD. Therefore, a thorough evaluation by a health care provider or mental health professional is necessary to determine the cause of the symptoms and identify effective treatments. During this evaluation, the health care provider or mental health professional will examine factors including the persons mood, medical history, and whether they struggle with other issues, such as alcohol or substance misuse.
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Environmental Exposure To Toxins And Chemicals
Exposure to substances, especially lead, may be a contributing factor. Studies have indicated a relationship between ADHD and levels of lead in the bloodstream. One study, published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, found that lead exposure was associated with the impulsivity-hyperactivity combined type of ADHD, but not the inattentive type.
Although the connection between lead and ADHD has been consistently demonstrated in research, its important to note that lead exposure is not the only cause of ADHD, nor does lead exposure guarantee that a child will develop ADHD.
Other environmental toxins, such as bisphenol A and phthalates, have more recently been found to be potentially problematic for brain health. But the connections between these toxins and ADHD have not yet been established.
What Are The Causes Of Adhd
Currently, the exact cause of ADHD is unknown. However, studies have found that not one factor is the sole cause of ADHD. There are multiple risk factors that may increase the chances of a child developing ADHD. These risk factors include genetic factors and environmental factors.
It is also highly likely that the overall risk of a child developing ADHD is dependent on the complex interaction between both genetic and environmental factors, highlighting the idea that not one sole factor can be attributed to causing ADHD.
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What Causes Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
The exact cause of ADHD is unknown, but the condition has been shown to run in families.
Research has also identified a number of possible differences in the brains of people with ADHD when compared with those without the condition.
Other factors suggested as potentially having a role in ADHD include:
- being born prematurely
- having a low birthweight
- smoking or alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy
ADHD can occur in people of any intellectual ability, although it’s more common in people with learning difficulties.
Premature Birth Or Low Birth Weight
Some research has suggested a correlation along a gradient that the lower the birth weight or the earlier the birth is, the greater the risk of ADHD. A meta-analysis and review of 34 studies, published in January 2018 in Pediatrics, confirmed this, showing an even stronger association with the development of ADHD when birth weight was extremely low or the birth was extremely preterm .
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Inattentive Type Adhd In Girls
While ADHD occurs in boys and girls at similar rates, boys are more likely to be diagnosed with the condition. Boys may be more likely to exhibit externalizing symptoms of the hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD, increasing the diagnosis rate since such symptoms tend to be more disruptive. Girls tend to exhibit more internalizing symptoms of ADHD, which may make it more difficult to spot, contributing to underdiagnosis.
Research Into Use Of Biomarkers For Diagnosis
Reviews of ADHD biomarkers have noted that platelet monoamine oxidase expression, urinary norepinephrine, urinary MHPG, and urinary phenethylamine levels consistently differ between ADHD individuals and non-ADHD controls. These measurements could potentially serve as diagnostic biomarkers for ADHD, but more research is needed to establish their diagnostic utility. Urinary and blood plasma phenethylamine concentrations are lower in ADHD individuals relative to controls and the two most commonly prescribed drugs for ADHD, amphetamine and methylphenidate, increase phenethylamine biosynthesis in treatment-responsive individuals with ADHD. Lower urinary phenethylamine concentrations are also associated with symptoms of inattentiveness in ADHD individuals.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Each Adhd Subtype
The symptoms of ADHD are spelled out in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , which lists nine symptoms that suggest ADHDPrimarily Inattentive and nine that suggest ADHDPrimarily Hyperactive/Impulsive. A child may be diagnosed with ADHD only if he or she exhibits at least six of nine symptoms from one of the lists below, and if the symptoms have been noticeable for at least six months in two or more settings for example, at home and at school. Whats more, the symptoms must interfere with the childs functioning or development, and at least some of the symptoms must have been apparent before age 123. Older teens and adults may need to consistently demonstrate just five of these symptoms in multiple settings.
What Are the 9 Symptoms of ADHD Primarily Inattentive Type?
- Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities .
- Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities .
- Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly .
- Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace .
- Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities .
- Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort .
- Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities .
- Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli .
- Is often forgetful in daily activities
Primarily Combined Type Adhd
Individuals with combined-type ADHD display a mixture of all the symptoms outlined above. A physician will diagnose patients with this Combined Type ADHD, of they meet the guidelines for Primarily Inattentive ADHD and Primarily Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD. That is, they must exhibit 6 of the 9 symptoms identified for each sub-type.
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How Can I Help Myself
Therapy and medication are the most effective treatments for ADHD. In addition to these treatments, other strategies may help manage symptoms:
- Exercise regularly, especially when youre feeling hyperactive or restless.
- Eat regular, healthy meals.
- Get plenty of sleep. Try to turn off screens at least 1 hour before bedtime and get between 7 and 9 hours of sleep every night.
- Work on time management and organization. Prioritize time-sensitive tasks and write down assignments, messages, appointments, and important thoughts.
- Connect with people and maintain relationships. Schedule activities with friends, particularly supportive people who understand your challenges with ADHD.
- Take medications as directed, and avoid use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs.
Can Adhd Develop Later In Life
ADHD is classified as a childhood developmental disorder, which means that symptoms of ADHD have to be present during childhood in order to be officially diagnosed with ADHD. While these ADHD symptoms can manifest into adulthood, it is not often that ADHD only develops after the age of 12. However, in recent years, researchers have been exploring the possibility of ADHD developing past childhood, although there is still insufficient evidence to support this theory.
ReferencesMehta, T. R., Monegro, A., Nene, Y., Fayyaz, M., & Bollu, P. C. . Neurobiology of ADHD: A Review. Current Developmental Disorders Reports, 6, 235240. doi:10.1007/s40474-019-00182-w
Buitelaar, J. K., Meer, D.V., & Richards, J. . Understanding the essentials of the ADHD neurobiology. ADHD, 17, 1741.
Núñez-Jaramillo, L., Herrera-Solís, A., & Herrera-Morales, W. V. . ADHD: Reviewing the Causes and Evaluating Solutions. Journal of Personalized Medicine, 11, 166. doi:10.3390/jpm11030166
Thapar, A., Cooper, M., Eyre, O., & Langley, K. . Practitioner Review: What have we learnt about the causes of ADHD? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 316. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02611.x
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